Wishing You A Good New Year

Happy New Year!

I hope this letter finds you and your loved ones well. I would enjoy hearing from you; please drop me a line when you have a moment.

My personal life continues to be enriched by our first child, Abraham, now a toddler. Although Abraham’s interests are varied, he possesses an admirable love of reading, devouring up to 15 books consecutively. His overflowing bookcase insufficiently  contains his growing curiosity. So, throughout 2014, I was challenged to re-tell the same story to my son while retaining his attention.

In my real estate practice, we continued to support clients through the buoyant 2014 market. This year, inspired by story time with my son, EK Group has focused on the ancient craft of skillful storytelling, using words, pictures and media like blog posts and websites to distinguish what makes each property we sell rare and valuable. This technique applied to all our listings has created favorable results for our clients. 

A noteworthy example of this approach in 2014 was The Dowell Residence Architect Paul Hayden Kirk designed this house in 1953 and we sold it together with many original components and artifacts including shoji screens made of horse hair, resin, and Japanese Sen wood, as well as a trove of archival documentation. Our story of this classic Seattle residence struck a chord across the nation, leading to a feature in The New York Times. This marketing campaign culminated into events supporting two worthy organizations The Seattle Architecture Foundation and ARCADE. Fundraising efforts for both organizations hosted at The Dowell Residence brought in over 200 people seeking inspiration and connection with others who shared their passion for timeless design and local history. In the end, these efforts resulted in a successful real estate transaction for the owners of the house.

We look forward to taking on more worthwhile endeavors in 2015 including serving you, your friends, and your family. The best way to reach me remains 206.387.6789 and edwardk@ekreg.com. For those friends who continue to contribute to young Abraham’s learning through your gifts of books, I am forever grateful. My ongoing learning as a parent will continue to inspire my real estate practice in ways I could not have predicted. 

May your 2015 bring good stories worth telling,


Posted on January 7, 2015 at 9:25 pm
Edward Krigsman | Posted in Blog |

Designing The Future in the 1960’s

We recently had the opportunity to list for sale a home whose design reflects a diversity of styles and trends – all from the early 1960's and rarely found in a single property. These trends include Modernism, Space Age, Car Culture, Atomic Age, Googie and Futurism. 

The Vista ’63 endeavor also reflects how 60’s-era technology and including the prefabricated construction championed through the Case Studies program and celebrated in the work of Charles and Ray Ames.

Architect Ken Kohler designed Vista '63 as the star attraction of the 1963 Seattle Post Intelligencer Home Show, which took place in the Seattle Center Coliseum (now Key Arena) in the spring of 1963. Following the Home Show, Vista '63 was moved to the shores of Lake Washington to a more permanent location – a 10,000-square-foot lot as the home for Koehler’s young family.

Here is a summary of the home’s design themes – so that we might learn from this living architectural laboratory:


Futurism dates its roots to Italy as far back as 1910, but found refinement in Futurist architecture of the early 20th century. Characterized by strong color, long dynamic lines, suggestions of speed and motion, urgency and lyricism, the movement attracted poets, musicians, artists and architects alike.

Neo-Futurism was reinvented from early 60s and late 70s by Finnish architects like Eero Saarinen, whose streamlined furniture designs, often of industrial materials like plastic, are associated with the era of space exploration. In popular literature, the term futuristic came to be used without much precision to define architecture with the appearance of the space age as described in works of science fiction.


In the 1950's, a style of architecture related to Futurism arose in America – Googie modified Futurism from a distinctive style to a free and uninhibited architectural approach which was interpreted and transformed by generations of architects. Generally, it included amazing shapes and dynamic lines with sharp contrasts as well as the use of technologically-advanced systems and materials. Examples of such architecture in the Seattle area include the Space Needle (1962(, Key Arena (1962), various Denny's Restaurants throughout Washington State, and the Henry M. Jackson Visitor Center at Mt. Rainier National Park (1966). Vista '63 is a classic and exceptionally rare example of Googie in residential design, as the style was applied more commonly to commercial buildings related to transportation—from automobile to air travel. LAX Airport is perhaps the most classic example.

Blob architecture represents an extension of Googie, with an example being the Blob, the now-demolished “blob building” once located at the foot of Queen Anne Hill. Many view architect Frank Gehry’s Experience Music Project as a celebration of Blob design.


In July 1944, a year prior to the end of World War II, the California-based journal – Arts and Architecture – published what was in essence a manifesto on the “post-war house” and the opportunities and necessity for prefabrication. This was largely the work of John Entenza, publisher and editor of Arts and Architecture since the late 1930’s, and his editorial assistants, Charles and Ray Eames, with contributions from Eero Saarinen and Buckminster Fuller.

Entenza and his editors were aware at the time of the pent-up demand for new housing that awaited the end of the War. They had also come to realize that the postwar house – when it was finally built – would be produced in a fundamentally different way than the prewar house given the social, economic and technological changes that had emerged from the war effort.


With the Case Study House Program, Entenza and the Eameses linked new technical possibilities, including factory-based prefabrication of new materials and assemblies, to the idea of the “modern house” and thus envisioned the future of home design.

Thanks to the Case Study House Program, by the 1960's significant progress was made in the development of new building materials. Vista '63 fabrication within the Seattle Coliseum, and then its efficient move to its future location near Lake Washington, represents the victory of the vision of Charles and Ray Eames, Eero Saarinen, and others.

Today's home buyers expect new homes to integrate various new technologies including home security, wireless internet, robot vacuums, heated driveways and AppleTV.

The seeds of today's innovations were spawned in the era of Vista '63. Just one year prior to the launch of Vista '63, thousands of visitors flocked to Century 21's World of Tomorrow to experience the future. Up to 100 visitors could ride the Bubbleator (a large glass globe) up into a honeycomb of cubes that foretold the future.

Here, they learned how the House of Tomorrow might include such conveniences as disposable dishes, automatic windows and changeable color schemes. Garages might be equipped with gyrocopters to zip them off to the Office of Tomorrow, which could have miniature micro-mail and machines to transmit correspondence, a 24-hour work week, and an astronomical salary of $12,000 a year!

Posted on November 13, 2014 at 6:01 pm
Edward Krigsman | Posted in Blog |

Mountain Modern Architecture

“It is the pervading law of all things organic and inorganic…that form ever follows function." – American architect, Louis Sullivan,

Prior to the 1950’s, Seattle could not boast a distinctive regional architectural language. Instead, Pacific Northwest architecture referenced bungalow and Queen Anne and other styles less popular in California and the Midwest, with frequent nods toward interpretations of European revival styles such as Tudor and Georgian.

When Northwesterners embraced modernism in the post-war era, our regional variant capitalized on natural, local materials as well as dramatic views of nature. Early Seattle-area modernist architects included Paul Hayden Kirk and Ralph Anderson and hundreds of such homes appeared in the 1950’s and 60’s.

Although embraced in major cities like Seattle, modern design was less popular in the hinterlands. Visitors to ski areas such as Snoqualmie Pass or Steven’s Pass continued to encounter more conventional and traditional homes. In snow-heavy mountainous areas, the prevailing aesthetic favored chalet designs reminiscent of the Northern European and Scandinavia regions from which many of Seattle’s residents emigrated in the 19th century. The most well known example of our tendency toward “chalet” style mountain homes may be found in Leavenworth, Washington. In 1962, the entire town was redeveloped to resemble a Bavarian village.

The Pass Life at Snoqualmie Pass

For several decades a handful of modernist architects have designed alternatives to the traditional mountain chalet. One of them – Ray Johnston of Johnston Architects – has designed more than 30 modernist homes for wilderness areas of Montana, Washington and Idaho.

More recently, Johnston has collaborated with Seattle developer – evolution projects – to design The Pass Life, a collection of 54 modern lofts as well as new retail buildings at Snoqualmie Pass, located about an hour from Seattle and Bellevue.

For The Pass Life, Johnston drew upon years of work on the Alaskan Pipeline, his licensure in arctic engineering, to create about 50 compact, sturdy and modern structures that bear little in common with the traditional “Bavarian chalet” architecture surrounding it. As a result, The Pass Life lofts have provoked more than a few head turns from locals more familiar with retro-Bavarian than Pacific Northwest modern design.

Unlike the traditional chalet homes surrounding The Pass Life, the new community features distinctive shed rooflines. Johnston explains that this novel approach allows homes to shed/retain the snow on the roof. This winter layer of snow adds significant insulation to the homes resulting in better energy efficiency. And because the roofs continue down the back of each home, during spring snow melts, this layer of moist insulation is shed off the back of the home, away from the entry protecting both people and structure.

Posted on October 28, 2014 at 9:30 pm
Edward Krigsman | Posted in Blog |

Mid-Century Modern – The Pacific Northwest

The postwar era in America witnessed the expression of a new approach to architecture, one appropriate for the modern age. It was practical, functional and economical. Open spaces, new materials and connections between the outside world and the inside of a home were crafted harmoniously.

Click on the picture to view the Exterior Gallery

This aesthetic took root in Seattle after World War II and quickly became popular throughout the Pacific Northwest, albeit with modifications that capitalized on the assets of regions reflecting a love of warm, natural, local materials as well as dramatic views of nature. Prior to the 1950’s, Seattle could not boast a distinctive regional architectural and artistic style. With Modernism, this changed – and the agents of this change in the realm of architecture were four men: Paul Thiry, Roland Terry, Victor Steinbrueck and Paul Hayden Kirk. 

Click on the picture to view the Interior Gallery

Nationally, the new architectural modernist style used strong materials such as reinforced concrete, glass and steel frames to define new age homes by clean lines, simple shapes and unornamented facades. Kirk’s Dowell Residence, which Architectural Record magazine highlighted among its “Record Houses” in 1957, represented a bold softening of the severe international style.  It replaced the abundant use of concrete and steel with the richness of fir, cedar and locally quarried stonework.

Click on the picture to view the Archive Gallery

To learn more and view over 100 photographs, visit TheDowellResidence.com

Posted on July 14, 2014 at 8:34 pm
Edward Krigsman | Posted in Blog | Tagged , , , , ,


Windermere: What’s in a name?

Do you know where the name “Windermere” originates?  Windermere is actually the name of Old England’s largest lake. The name is Scandinavian for “Vinandr’ “Mere; Vindandr – a family’s name, and Mere  which translates as “lake” or “pool.” 

The 10.5 mile, 219 foot deep Windermere Lake is located in the Lake District National Park of  England, and is a popular destination among the English.  It is also reputed the lake is home to a monster named Bownessie.

While ancient English men (and monsters) may have once populated the Windermere site, the namesake is now known for its celebrity sightings.  Did you know that Tiger Woods bought his very first home in Windermere – Windermere, Florida – that is? Located in the exclusive Isleworth Community, Tiger’s old home was just a hop and a skip away from the driving range.  No wonder the current owner of this slice of real estate is another golfer, Bubba Watson, who moved his family to Isleworth from Bagdad – Bagdad, Florida – that is.  

The good old European continent not only gave us city names, it also gave us Lady Windermere.  Oscar Wilde, one of Ireland’s most popular playwrights set out to irritate 19th century Victorian society with his play, Lady Windermere’s Fan.  Wilde’s comedy bitingly satirizes the morals of society providing additional color and context to our little Windermere of the Pacific Northwest.

In 1910 Seattle annexed the land later to be known as Windermere; the year Howard Taft threw out the first baseball on opening day for the Washington Senators.  Roller-blading today along the Burke-Gilman trail – you might find it hard to imagine this thriving suburb once offered fertile ground to City’s first non-Native farmers. Farming may not have proved this land’s most attractive activity: By the 1940’s real estate develoment transformed the farmlands into Seattle’s well-known waterfront enclave; marked by concrete portals fashioned in the art deco style and capped by handsome art-glass lanterns. Lakefront neighborhood of Laurelhurst next door was also developed in this era. 

Not much changed at all here until 1972, when John W. Jacobi, recently retired from the banking industry, founded Windermere Real Estate after purchasing an eight-agent office near the charming waterfront neighborhood.  To this day, this small office serves as the company headquarters for over 300 offices.  The Windermere Real Estate Company proudly sponsors the Windermere Cup – an annual international rowing regatta located at the “Montlake Cut” – it marks Opening Day of Seattle’s boating season.  This year’s event was known for gusty weather. One of the 40,000 Cup spectators was overheard commenting the event should be re-named—at least for the day—“Windy-Mere.” 



Posted on May 13, 2014 at 4:03 pm
Edward Krigsman | Posted in Blog |

Genesis House: Funding a Future for Addiction Treatment

Named for the Arbutus trees common to the area, Madrona’s hills rose from the Vashon Glacier that melted 40,000 years ago, shaping Lake Washington and other Pacific Northwest landmarks. By the 19th century Seattle’s Union Trunk Line Railway chugged up the hill along a new town center, up 34th Avenue toward Madrona Park.

Conveniently located ten minutes from Seattle’s business and cultural core, Madrona is prized for its village ambiance and diverse housing styles. Here behind a block-long old laurel hedge you might discover a neighborhood institution called Genesis House.

In the 1970’s, founders of Genesis House cobbled together this small urban campus from the foundations of large homes and a turn of the century coach house. Today the buildings encompass dormitories, administration & counseling offices and a State-licensed day-care. Zoned for single-family homes, the city has “grandfathered in” these institutional uses, thanks to Genesis House’s 40-years of continuous operation.

Genesis House combines residential addiction treatment with therapeutic childcare, parenting classes and gender-specific group therapy sessions. This long-term approach helps families disrupt generations of addiction, substituting healthy living for hopelessness.

Recent budget cuts by the State of Washington and the Federal government forced all addiction treatment providers including Genesis House to examine their business models and to adjust operations. During this evaluation, Genesis House determined that its Madrona location—distant from public transit hubs—had grown difficult for its largely low- and no-income population to reach. Leaders also determined that the Campus buildings were due for extensive capital improvements.

Genesis House leaders decided it was prudent to sell the Campus property—nearly an acre of flat land zoned for many single family homes in the heart of one of Seattle’s most coveted neighborhoods. The economic recovery of 2010-13 had heightened demand among residential single-family developers, investors, and even institutional users for well-located land. 

So, in 2014, Genesis House sought our help in selling their Campus. By recapturing equity from the Campus property Genesis House will be positioned to continue to support addiction treatment in Washington State.  


                         Dormitory and Counseling Building         Arial View of the Genesis House Campus                         Carriage House

View more photos of The Genesis House Campus and Madrona.


Posted on March 28, 2014 at 2:28 am
Edward Krigsman | Posted in Blog |

3.8% Medicare Real Estate Tax: Fact or Fiction?


You may have heard rumors about a 3.8% seller real estate tax to begin in 2013 and wondered if there was any truth to it.

Simply put, these rumors are a mixture of fact and fiction: When people refer to the “Medicare Tax”, they are talking about the tax provision of the Patient Protection Affordable Care Act (PPACA), a piece of health care legislation. This provision of the legislation is an investment income tax, not a sales tax on the sale of real estate. It may mean that a small percentage of home sellers who fit very narrow parameters might pay additional taxes on the profits of home sales that exceed a designated threshold amount.

Who exactly will be affected by this tax? Only those taxpayers BOTH designated by the provision as "high earners," AND who sell their homes at a substantial profit. "High earners”, according to the new law, are those who earn $250,000 (for married couples filing jointly) or $125,000 (for couples filing separately), or $200,000 (for all others).

The tax affects only those “high earners” who will see a substantial profit from the sale of their property, but this situation is uncommon. Why is this? Profit, according to this statue, will be calculated not on the basis of sales price. Rather, it will be adjusted to reflect existing capital gains exclusions for primary residences. The existing home sale capital gains exclusion on a principal residence is $250,000 for individuals and $500,000 for couples. No “Medicare Tax” will apply to gains within these limits.

If you feel that you may be among the few who must pay this new investment tax, you may want to consider selling before the law goes into effect in 2013. It is always best to consult with an accountant and/or tax attorney before making any decisions.

Posted on November 2, 2013 at 12:03 am
Edward Krigsman | Posted in Blog |

How new finance legislation affects home owners, buyers and sellers


Many home owners, buyers, and sellers have been carefully watching the new federal finance package passed on January 1, 2013 by both the U.S. House of Representatives and the Senate. This is because it included automatic tax increases as well as federal spending cuts that involve real estate programs.

Many important real estate programs were extended, albeit for a limited time. Therefore homeowners, buyers and sellers should pay attention to these new time periods when planning financially.

Components of the legislation most likely to impact real estate decisions: 

  • Capital gains tax exclusions for sale of a principal residence remain in place. This benefit protects up to $500,000 of capital gain ($250,000 for individual filers). However, home sellers with incomes of $450,000 ($400,00 for individual filers) or above and where the gain on the sale of their home is above $500,000 will now pay taxes on the excess capital gains at a higher tax higher rate.
  • Key provisions of the Mortgage Debt Relief Act are extended through January 1, 2014. This provides financial relief in the form of lower taxes for home owners or sellers who have a portion of their mortgage debt forgiven by their lender. For sellers, this forgiveness occurs through a form of a short sale or foreclosure. For home owners, this relief comes in the form of a loan modification.  

Without this extension, any debt forgiven would become taxable. Home buyers will benefit from this extension since it will likely result in a greater number of short sales and foreclosures being available for sale, as underwater sellers are more incentivized.

  • Deductions for mortgage insurance for filers earning below $110,000 are extended to through 2013. Mortgage insurance—usually paid for by home buyers—allows home buyers who have less money to put down to qualify for better loans. Home buyers with qualified residences will be able to continue to deduct the cost of this mortgage insurance. This benefit is also retroactive through 2012.
  • The 10 percent tax credit for energy improvements to existing homes is extended through 2013. This credit, which is limited to $500, applies to existing homes and is also retroactive through 2012.
  • Capital gains on real estate contributed by home owners for conservation are extended through 2014.  Increased contribution limits and carry-forward periods for contributions of appreciated real property will be maintained.
  • The first $5M in individual estates and $10M for family estates are now exempt from estate tax. Tax rates in excess of these figures have increased. This will benefit the heirs.  

Other changes—such as new estate tax exemptions and an increased capital gain tax rate for those earning more than $450,000 ($400,000 for individuals)—may also impact real estate decision-making. As always, home owners, buyers, and sellers are advised to seek the advice of a qualified tax advisor before making major financial decisions, including the decision to buy or sell real estate. 


Posted on November 2, 2013 at 12:00 am
Edward Krigsman | Posted in Blog |

New Home Design & Social Trends


Builders of new homes frequently discover new ways to differentiate their new construction from existing houses, hoping to capture the attention of potential customers by delighting and surprising them.

The more successful builders therefore develop keen skills in observing emerging social trends, incorporating features, finishes, and floor plans that fulfill the needs of new buyer groups in ways that are often clever, unexpected and relevant.

Here are several current home design innovations that provide us glimpses into ways our culture is changing:

1.      Made-to-Order Homes:  Many of us have grown accustomed to the convenience of shopping for—and customizing—household products online. Home builders are capitalizing on this trend, developing websites that make it easy for buyers to configure their home online. One builder has assimilated over 70 systems and manufacturer products like plumbing, electronics, HVAC, security, and more into a “core wall.” This allows the rest of the home design to be adjusted based on family needs. Warren Buffet’s recent purchase of Clayton Homes, the nations’ largest modular builder, indicates that online home ordering will be a growing trend.

2.      Universal Design: Every day, 10,000 Americans turn 65. Homebuilders have found that both older and younger homeowners want “universal design,” homes that better fit the needs of people across the widest range of ability and ages. Examples of universal design: Entries without steps and showers without thresholds. Electrical outlets are now being incorporated into light switches at eye-level, permitting homeowners to more easily plug in appliances like vacuum cleaners without bending down to the floor.

3.      Activated Ceilings: The current generation of first time homebuyers is the first in history who grew up looking down—an unintended consequence of the popularity of handheld mobile electronic devices. This creates strain on the eyes, neck and shoulders which can result in a variety of vision, spine, and other health issues. Designers are addressing this by incorporating more dramatic visual features into home ceilings. By giving us reason to widen our range of vision, the hope is that overall health will be improved.

4.Fast House Nation: Many of us are now adjusting to an increased rate of change—rather than accumulating stuff, we crave more diverse life experiences. So, new homes are being delivered with inexpensive opportunities for self-expression and customization. Chalkboard paint is increasingly used as a wall color, permitting artistic expression for children (of all ages). New senior housing communities are incorporating parking spaces for food trucks near the entrance, bringing fresh and varying culinary experiences to residents.

5.      Big Small Houses: We are requiring less space that does more for us. In fact, the National Association of Homebuilders expects the average size of a new home in 2015 will be 2,152 square feet, a 10% drop in size from 2010. Living rooms, dining rooms, home offices, and entry foyers are all on the endangered spaces list. Private, single-purpose rooms (like master bedrooms and bathrooms) are now expected to incorporate multiple and shared uses, such as coffee bars or exercise equipment. Wi-Fi networks and mobile tablet devices have rendered dedicated dens unnecessary. Look for “great rooms” to take center stage, incorporating the functions traditionally demanded of multiple smaller rooms.

6.Waning of the Book: As more readers gravitate to space-saving e-readers like the Kindle, printed books are becoming less common. As a result, bookcases are giving way to “collector” cases for displaying personal treasures like collectibles, antiques, family heirlooms, or natural artifacts such as gems or shells.

7.      Families, Extended:  Home markets serving international buyers often incorporate a greater number of culturally appropriate features. More buyers today wouldn’t think of living without extended family, and expect household spaces to be more purposefully designed for shared living.  As a consequence, new homes are being built with multiple master suites. What some may have characterized as a  “granny flat” in the past is positioned prominently in these new floor plans, reflecting the elevated social status and esteem of elder parents. Some designs, like home builder Lennar’s “NextGen,” are “homes within homes,” complete with eat-in kitchenettes and living rooms. Primary kitchens may incorporate isolated cook areas serviced by high-powered fans, to keep food aromas out of the living spaces of the home.

Posted on November 1, 2013 at 11:57 pm
Edward Krigsman | Posted in Blog |

Cultural Trends: How driving trends are impacting the housing market


As we have mentioned in previous blog posts, home buyers continue to consider their daily commute when making home purchase decisions. Some Americans are limiting their driving or forgoing cars all together. In recent years, the driving trends of Millennial and Boomer generations have decreased steadily. More Americans in general are embracing alternatives to driving like mass transit, walking, bicycling, car sharing, and working from home.

Recent studies and articles in publications like the Washington Post and theNew York Times document declining automobile use. Driving measured by consumption of auto fuel tells the same story. Whether you are a home buyer, seller, or owner, these trends may impact your decisions in new and surprising ways, with the value of your home being shaped, at least in part, by this trend.

If you are in the market for a home, considering your commute, walk-score, and transportation options could be an important part of determining if a particular neighborhood is right for you. It might also be helpful to seek out the assistance of a real estate agent familiar with such issues.

Real estate companies have started adding search features to their websites to assist buyers with evaluating commuting information. For example, Windermere recently added INRIX DriveTime™ to its website which allows home buyers to search for homes based on commute times. Walkscore.com and Transitscore.com provide home buyers with a quick and easy way to assess the quality of a community based on walkability and access to mass transit. These online tools highlight those homes with shorter drive times and higher walkability, factors which could end up impacting the value of certain homes as some buyers “vote with their feet,” rather than with their car.

Real estate developers are embracing this trend too by building in locations that reduce car use; this is why you may notice an increase in new housing as you travel from suburban neighborhoods into cities like San Francisco, Portland, San Diego, or Seattle. In some of these cities, it is increasingly common to see townhomes built in more walkable neighborhoods, many without dedicated, private garages. 

City planners are encouraging such construction by changing zoning laws to foster "Transit Oriented Development," (TOD). TOD changes zoning to incentivize developers to create new housing construction close to light rail stations, with progressively lower housing density to about 1/2 mile from their stops. This solves what city planners have come to call the "last mile problem," (getting more commuters home from a transit hub). Cities with TOD initiatives include Seattle, the San Francisco Bay Area, the Salt Lake City Metro Area, and the Portland Metro area.

With experts saying that consumers are trending towards less driving, home buyers may wish to evaluate the location of their purchase by asking themselves the following questions:

  • Does this neighborhood lower the cost of living, while increasing the quantity and quality of free time, by increasing my independence from cars?
  • What is the travel time between the places those in my household frequent most, such as home, work, schools, and recreational amenities?

If you are selling your home, consider highlighting its location as one that might improve the quality of life for the next residents by showcasing drive time, walkability, and proximity to transit—to the extent that such benefits exist.

Studies continue to show that the amount of time a person spends commuting every day is a major factor when buying a home. In recent years, there has also been a significant trend towards mass transit and reducing one’s “carbon footprint” by driving less. This is important for both buyers and sellers to keep in mind, as these factors can have a significant impact on the long-term value of a home – and on the quality of life for you and those in your community.



Posted on November 1, 2013 at 11:55 pm
Edward Krigsman | Posted in Blog |